President & CEO
Smart Business Network
Fred co-founded Smart Business Network in 1989 with a single publication in Cleveland, Ohio. In the years since, he has built the company into a leading multimedia and content marketing business providing print and digital marketing services to a national client base.
Senior Vice President | Managing Director, Head of Southeast WI Commercial Banking
BMO Harris Bank NA
A native of Wisconsin Dells, WI, Dave is a Senior Vice President of BMO Harris Bank. He currently is Head of the Middle Market and Large Corporate Banking teams as Managing Director of Southeast WI. These seasoned teams work closely with BMO’s client base to provide solutions utilizing global resources that are delivered through local bankers. Dave has 30 years of banking experience, 26 of which has been with Marshall & Ilsley Bank/BMO. Dave joined M&I Bank in 1994 as a Commercial Banking Officer. His experience includes leading several banking teams in Southeast WI and assisting in the strategic direction for the Commercial Banking footprint for M&I Corporation. Dave has also been actively involved in leading Career Development programs and various bank training initiatives across the footprints of both legacy M&I and BMO Harris Commercial Banking. Prior to M&I and BMO, David worked for WHEDA in Capital Markets and Bank One, Madison.
Tim is Managing Director of Business Development & Investor Relations for Marcus Investments. Prior to joining Marcus Investments in 2018, Tim held various positions as an institutional hedge fund marketing professional for asset management firms including Stark Investments, Trian Credit Partners, III Capital Management, Macquarie USA & One William Street Capital. He is a graduate of Vanderbilt University (B.A.) and received his MBA in Finance, Investments & Banking from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Borgman Capital LLC
David is a Managing Director of Borgman Capital LLC, where he is responsible for deal origination, structuring, and portfolio company governance. Mr. Bartelme previously worked in Shell Oil Company’s corporate M&A practice where he focused on strategy, valuation, deal structuring, and coordination for deals both domestic and international. Mr. Bartelme started his career as a chemical engineer in the chemicals and energy industries where he spent more than a decade leading engineering, operations, and maintenance departments. Mr. Bartelme holds degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Washington and an MBA from the University of Alberta.
Chief Investment Officer
Lubar & Co.
Dave is a partner and Chief Investment Officer with Lubar & Co., a Milwaukee based single family office, since 2005. He is involved in the private equity activities of the firm and is on the board or working closely with the portfolio of companies including American Pasteurization, Chem Design, Shared Imaging, Lake Express, Erdman, Drilltec, Rockland Industrial Products, Wrightwood Financial, Ixonia Bank, Zero Zone as well as the firms real-estate investment holdings. He also serves on the board of Star Gas (Ticker:SGU). Prior to this, he was the Chief Financial Officer for Facilitator Capital Fund, a Wisconsin-based Small Business Investment Company. He started his career with Arthur Andersen where he led the Wisconsin transaction advisory services practice. Mr. Bauer received a Master of Business Administration degree from Marquette University in 2005 and a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting in 1991. He is a Certified Public Accountant and a member of the Wisconsin Institute of CPA's and the American Institute of CPA's. In addition, Mr. Bauer is actively involved with several local charitable organizations including the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Sisters of the Divine Savior, and is an adjunct professor of corporate finance at Marquette University in their Executive MBA program. He has two children and resides in Waukesha, WI with his wife, Heidi.
Katie Blom understands she is in a unique position to use legal skills to help clients solve business problems. This philosophy guides her in all areas of representation. She rarely tells her clients “no,” preferring instead to work with them to determine how they can accomplish goals within the confines of the law, helping clients identify practical and effective solutions.
A large portion of Katie’s practice is focused in the area of Mergers and Acquisitions (“M&A”), where she represents both buyers and sellers who are considering or engaging in the process of transitioning their company. She advises clients with respect to Letters of Intent, CDAs/NDAs, due diligence, definitive purchase agreements (stock or asset transactions), purchase price allocations, warranties and representations, indemnification (baskets, caps, etc.) and other challenging topics. Her significant experience and calm demeanor allow her to navigate even the most difficult transaction, at all times in pursuit of her client’s end goals.
Beyond M&A, Katie serves as a trusted adviser to her clients providing sophisticated yet understandable advice in all areas of business law, including contracts, financing, and commercial real estate. Finally, Katie also has a passion for working with charitable organizations. Once called the “Queen of Non-Profits” by a client, Katie is able to simplify the process of working with the Internal Revenue Service and the State, helping organizations obtain the desirable 501(c)(3) status.
Senior Vice President of Commercial Banking
North Shore Bank
Serving as Senior Vice President of Commercial Banking, Margaret leads North Shore Bank’s efforts to provide customized solutions for middle market all the way to small businesses in Eastern Wisconsin. With an emphasis on developing strong relationships, Capper works closely with owners and key managers of businesses to assist with their financial needs. Serving business clients for over 25 years, Capper brings valuable knowledge of day-to-day banking needs, cash flow strategies, and merger and acquisition funding. Along with her work at North Shore Bank, Capper is a strong community advocate for educating new business owners and facilitated seminar series with other community groups such as WWBIC and the Latino Chamber of Commerce. She also has a strong background in nonprofit and sits on various boards supporting the community.
President and CEO
White Family Investments
Dan is President and CEO of White Family Investments, the family office investing arm for the White family, who are the founding family and owners of privately held Rite Hite Holding Corporation. Dan is responsible for all oversight and management of the family office including investment portfolio management, trust administration, family assets, and financial planning. Previously, Dan was worked as the Global Head of Corporate Development and M&A for Kohler Co, a $7.0 billion privately held, family managed diversified holding company.
Executive Search Partners
Nick is President of Executive Search Partners (ESP) and has been in the executive search industry for over 30 years. He has helped build countless executive leadership teams throughout the country with his candid, consultative approach and sound business acumen. Nick’s boutique executive search firm, ESP focuses primarily in representing private equity and venture capital backed investments in multiple manufacturing and service-based industries. Nick is a proven and accomplished leader in the executive search industry consistently leading ESP as one of Wisconsin’s most recognized and respected executive search firms. Nick is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire and a Certified Behavioral Analyst.
Racon Capital Partners
Jackie is the Chief Operating Officer at Racon Capital Partners. Jackie is responsible for the day to day operations of the business, including marketing and investor relations. In addition, Jackie is a General Partner for the Wisconsin Super Angel Fund. Prior to this, Jackie led Business Development efforts and served as Chief Administration Officer at Stark Investments, a global, multi-billion-dollar, alternative investment manager.
Vice President – Corporate Strategy
Andrew DeGuire is the Vice President of Corporate Strategy at Northwestern Mutual where the team’s responsibilities include leading development and driving the company’s multi-year strategy, performance reporting, corporate, consumer and competitive research and analytics. He is a member of the Northwestern Mutual Venture Fund investment committee. Mr. DeGuire joined Northwestern Mutual in 2018 as a member of the Corporate Strategy team. From 2015 to 2018, he was the Vice President, Corporate Development and Mergers & Acquisitions at Quad/Graphics. From 2002 to 2014, he was the Vice President, Strategy & Acquisitions for the Building Efficiency business of Johnson Controls.
Stemina Biomarker Discovery / NeuroPointDX
Elizabeth, JD, MBA, MS is President and CEO of Stemina Biomarker Discovery, a biotech company focused on toxicology and compound safety screening using human stem cells. Stemina also operates a business unit, NeuroPointDX, which is focused on diagnostic biomarkers for more precise treatment of autism. Under her leadership, Stemina brought to market the first blood test for autism.
Capital Midwest Fund
Daniel is General Partner of Capital Midwest Fund. Dan is on the board of Blue Pillar, Valid8, NuCurrent, Pegex, Physoft, and Always In Touch. Dan founded the Wisconsin Investment Syndication Committee in 2016. He was President of the board of COA. In 2012, he was named Man of the Year for the Milwaukee Chapter of the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Prior to joining Capital Midwest, he served as Investor Relations Director at UICI, a publicly traded holding company with five subsidiaries in the health insurance industry based in Dallas, Texas. Dan earned an M.B.A. in finance from the Cox business school at SMU. Mr. Einhorn also earned a B.S. from the Hotel School at Cornell University.
Managing Partner, Milwaukee Office and Partner
Michael Best & Friedrich LLP
Alec serves as primary outside counsel to national, regional, and community banks on interest rate swaps, foreign exchange, commodities, and other derivatives product lines, including documentation for customer transactions and Dodd-Frank Act compliance. In addition, he represents end-users on interest rate swaps, foreign exchange, commodities, and other derivatives transactions and compliance.
General Capital Group
As a Partner at a leading real estate development firm, Linda has honed her skills in finance, credit, problem solving, networking, and collaboration to negotiate complex transactions. In her previous role as a Managing Director for a $14B global hedge fund, she contributed to asset growth, investment performance, and global expansion. Having benefited from the support and encouragement of mentors and advocates throughout her career, Linda pays it forward as a champion for women, young professionals, and a deep commitment to numerous civic and philanthropic organizations.
New Resources Consulting
Mr. Grosskopf is the CEO and owner of New Resources Companies, a technology and business consulting firm with more than 200 consultants. Since 2003, Mark has launched five successful companies and acquired three and divested four. By employing a strategy of innovation, diversification and investment, Mark's companies have grown to over 250 people over the past 10 years.
Nezih Hasanoglu Jr.
Executive Vice President of Business Development
M3 Insurance Solutions, Inc.
Nezih is the executive vice president of business development and a partner at M3 Insurance. He is responsible for the overall direction, strategy, long-term planning and performance of M3’s business development, marketing, and mergers & acquisitions teams. Hasanoglu is a member of M3’s Executive Operating Committee
Regional Manager Commercial Banking
Associated Bank NA
Gus joined Associated Bank in October 2019 and is the senior vice president & market leader, Corporate Banking. He is responsible for leading a Corporate Banking team in its business development and client relationship efforts for the southeastern Wisconsin market. Hernandez brings more than 30 years of banking experience to Associated Bank. Most recently he held the position of Milwaukee regional president at Johnson Bank. Prior to that he spent nearly 15 years at BMO Harris Bank/M&I Bank, holding leadership positions in commercial banking in Wisconsin and Florida. Hernandez holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Marquette University and a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in finance and marketing from the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. He serves on the board for Ascend Talent Strategies, Milwaukee Metropolitan Association of Commerce and Waukesha County Business Alliance Economic Development Policy committee.
Phil is a 27 year veteran of Aon. He has served in many roles in Aon's Chicago and Milwaukee offices, including broker, relationship manager and office head. Currently Phil is a leader of Aon's Commercial Risk operations in Milwaukee. He has helped clients in multiple industries realize their Risk Management goals and has supported their growth efforts through hundreds of M&A transactions large, small, foreign and domestic.
Senior Managing Director
Mason Wells Inc.
As a Senior Managing Director of Mason Wells Buyout Funds, Mr. Holbrook is primarily responsible for supporting the investment activities of those funds. In this capacity, Mr. Holbrook is responsible for initiating investment opportunities, negotiating transactions, supervising due diligence, serving on the Board of Directors of portfolio companies, and working with portfolio company management teams. Mr. Holbrook is a member the Investment Committee of Mason Wells Buyout Fund IV. Mr. Holbrook has over 20 years of financial services experience. Prior to joining Mason Wells in 2005, Mr. Holbrook served as a Research Associate at Janney Montgomery Scott in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he was principally responsible for equity research coverage in the Information Security sector. Mr. Holbrook is a member of the Board of Directors of Buffalo Games, LLC and King Juice Company, Inc. He previously served on the Board of Directors of A&R Logistics, Inc., Eddy Packing Co., Inc., Paris Presents Incorporated, Prime Distribution Services, Inc., and Whitehall Specialties, Inc. Mr. Holbrook is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Petit National Ice Center. A native of Wisconsin, Mr. Holbrook received a Bachelor of Science degree with Honors in Psychology from Brown University. He also attended Harvard Business School and completed the Advanced Management Program. Mr. Holbrook competed in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece as a member of the United States Olympic Rowing Team.
Idea Fund of La Crosse
Jonathon is Managing Director of the Idea Fund of La Crosse. The Idea Fund is a seed stage venture capital fund established in 2016 to invest in pre-revenue and early stage revenue startup companies. Jon previously worked in J.P. Morgan's Diversified Industries Investment Banking Group in New York.
President & CEO
CARW - Commercial Association of REALTORS Wisconsin
Tracy is President and CEO for CARW – the Commercial Association of REALTORS® Wisconsin, a trade association of 900 commercial real estate professionals representing 100 M SF of real estate for sale or lease. She oversees the statewide commercial data platform and leads advocacy efforts for the commercial real estate industry. She is a board member of Ascension Wisconsin and the Transportation Development Association.
Alexander is the President & Founder of 37celsius Capital Partners, and focuses on strategic business expansion and integration of its portfolio companies. Mr. Kempe has 25 years of operating and investment management experience in the healthcare industry. Mr Kempe worked at GE & GE Healthcare (“GEHC”) in a number of strategic, operational and financial leadership positions in the U.S. and in Europe.
Joe cofounded the gener8tor program where he manages the company's efforts along with his business partner Troy Vosseller. gener8tor's four programs include (1) its startup accelerators including the nationally-ranked gener8tor and The Brandery programs, which operate in Minneapolis, Madison, Milwaukee, and Cincinnati; (2) its gBETA program, which consists of a free, seven-week accelerator that most recently expanded into Social Impact with American Family Insurance and Musictech with Capitol Records; (3) its corporate programming including its OnRamp Conference series in insurance and manufacturing; and, (4) its cultural accelerators including the Backline accelerator program for musicians and Fellowship.art for artists. The 75+ startup graduates of the gener8tor accelerator have raised over $200 million in follow-on financing and created thousands of jobs.
Lee M. Koury
Smart Business Network Inc.
Lee Koury is managing partner of Smart Business Network Inc., a national events, media and marketing company founded in 1989, primarily responsible for expanding the company’s Aspire deal-making conference throughout the U.S. He plays a key role in establishing corporate policies and developing long-term strategy and growth plans. Previously, he founded and chaired the Growth Group at national law firm Arter & Hadden LLP (now Tucker, Ellis & West), which focused on working with middle-market and high-growth technology companies.
Senior Vice President | Wealth Management
Associated Trust Company, N.A. | Associated Investment Services, Inc.
John is a Senior Financial Advisor for the Associated Wealth Management division of Associated Bank. A member of the Associated Bank team since 2010, he brings over 20 years of experience in the wealth and trust management fields.
John focuses on creating lasting relationships with his clients, and promotes a comprehensive, high touch approach to wealth management in the areas of private banking, financial planning, and investment management. Crafting a comprehensive financial plan is also a primary driving force in his approach to working with clients, and offers expertise in the financial planning areas of wealth transfer, estate planning, retirement, and charitable giving. As a Certified Exit Planning Advisor (CEPA), he also has expertise in the area of helping business owners properly exit or transition their business.
John is active in the community serving as a member of the Gustavus Adolphus College Alumni Mentoring and Leadership Program helping to provide mentoring and guidance to graduating business students at Gustavus.
Baird Private Wealth Management
Tom is a member of Baird’s Financial Sponsor Coverage Group, managing the firm’s relationships with a number ofleading private equity firms and family offices. Since joining Baird in 1997, Tom has worked on a variety of M&A transactions and equity offerings for companies in the industrial, consumer, retail, business services, healthcare and energy sectors. Prior to 2010, Tom was a Managing Director in Baird’s Industrial Group, leading dozens of equity and M&A transactions in the vehicle supply sector. During 2000, Tom was based in Baird’s London office. Prior to joining Baird, Tom was a Financial Analyst with Goldman, Sachs & Co., received an M.B.A. from the University of Virginia Darden School of Business, and received a B.A. from Boston College.
Husch Blackwell LLP
Eric leads Husch Blackwell’s national Financial Services & Capital Markets industry team. He regularly represents domestic and foreign corporations, private equity and venture capital funds, institutional investors, underwriters, investment banks, insurance companies, financial institutions and entrepreneurs. Eric has extensive experience in mergers and acquisitions, leveraged recapitalizations, public and private offerings of debt and equity capital, fund structuring and portfolio investments, cross-border transactions, private company ownership succession planning, and emerging company capitalization and growth transactions.
F Street Group
Scott is the founder of F Street Group, an investment company that includes a number of industry vertical investments, including real estate, hospitality, lending, and emerging markets. After graduating from George Washington University, Scott returned home to Milwaukee in 2004 and began investing in real estate. Since then, he’s created a number of investment-specific portfolios using the “F Street” brand, including Development, Hospitality, and Investments. As President of F Street Development, Scott has been the driving force behind acquiring the initial real estate assets and continues to look for new investments that meet his stringent criteria, while focusing on helping to improve the communities where he invests.
Dana Investment Advisors Inc.
Mark joined Dana Investment Advisors in December 1991 as a Vice President. He was promoted to Chief Operating Officer in December 1999 and Chief Executive Officer in December 2003. He is responsible for supervising all day-to-day operations of the Firm. He also assists with portfolio management and administrative servicing for numerous clients. Prior to joining Dana, Mark was an Audit Supervisor at Coopers & Lybrand where he specialized in the mutual fund and finance industries. Mark graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison with a BBA in Accounting in 1985 and earned an MBA in Finance in 1986. Mark is a Certified Public Accountant and is an active member of the AICPA, WICPA and FPA organization. Mark is also an active board member of Catholic Memorial High School and the Waukesha Regional YMCA.
CEO & Managing Director
N2 Advantage Law, Ltd.
Tim is the CEO of N2 Advantage Law, Ltd., a business law firm and Managing Director of N2 Advantage, Ltd., a capital markets advisory firm. Both firms are based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and focus on mergers and acquisitions - helping clients buy, sell and finance their businesses. He is a practicing attorney since 1982 and clients choose him as their most trusted legal and business advisor, especially when things get tense and an experienced strategic negotiator is needed. He is a formally trained negotiator (Harvard Program On Negotiation, Notre Dame Certificate in Negotiation) and use those skills to guide his clients and their boards through every stage of the business lifecycle including: acquisitions, expansion, shareholder buyouts, contracts with vendors and employees, tax planning strategies, negotiating financing transactions, management succession and sales of the businesses. Tim is an author, speaker and teacher for various business and professional organizations including VISTAGE, State Bar of Wisconsin, Continuing Legal Education of Wisconsin, Lorman and the Wisconsin Institute of Certified Public Accountants. He has taught graduate courses in Corporate Tax Strategies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, as well as, lectured on business law in the general practice category at the University of Wisconsin Law School. Currently, he is the author and presenter of an innovative negotiation training/coaching program that has been presented to over 500 CEO's and CFO's, as well as the internal sales and purchasing teams from a variety of businesses.
RSM US LLP
Doug is a Partner and the Wisconsin Market Leader at RSM. Since joining the firm in 1998, Doug has provided audit and advisory services across a wide variety of industries, including industrial manufacturing, consumer goods, telecommunications, and other service and technology driven companies and distributors. He serves public and privately held entities, including listed companies, private equity, family office, and owner-managed businesses, as well as other strategic investors. He is part of leadership teams at RSM to set and manage strategic priorities for the market and firm. Doug is a certified public accountant who is licensed in Wisconsin and Illinois. He is a member of the board of directors of Junior Achievement Wisconsin and Best Buddies Wisconsin.
Paul is a partner in the valuation, forensic, and litigation services practice at Wipfli. He has performed over 1,000 business appraisals for numerous industries throughout Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and many other states. In addition, Paul has performed hundreds of financial institution valuations.
American Family Ventures
Dan has worked as a strategy consultant with the Boston Consulting Group and in various strategic roles at American Family Insurance. He has experience as a principal in two start-up companies. Additionally, his work history includes hospital administration at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and a career as a professional baseball player with the Baltimore Orioles. Dan holds an MBA with a concentration in Strategic Management from the University of Chicago and an undergraduate degree from Stanford University.
Generation Growth Capital
John K. Reinke, CFA, is a Managing Director with Generation Growth Capital Fund. Headquartered in Milwaukee, WI, GGC invests in lower middle market companies (defined generally as companies with sales of $5 million to $50 million) to support ownership transition and new growth strategies. John currently serves on the board of directors at Winsert, Inc., M2M Machining, Inc., and Clinkenbeard & Associates. John received a Bachelors of Business Administration degree in finance from the University of Minnesota, a Masters of Business Administration from Marquette University and has also earned the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) designation.
President & CEO
Health Payment Systems
As President and CEO of HPS, Terry’s focus is providing empathetic, consistent, relatable leadership that engages, inspires and encourages team growth within all levels of the organization. His people-centric approach consistently yields positive bottom-line results by influencing hard-to-control costs such as turnover and productivity.
Sachse Family Fund
Dave is an early stage venture investor via the Sachse Family Fund (SFF). He also created, Family VC, a private syndicate of FO and HNWI who collaborate on venture investing. SFF invests in technology and deals they can add value beyond capital. The Sachse family has a background in manufacturing, corporate retail, investing, M&A and high growth startups.
Senior Vice President
Michael brings a background of both risk management and legal experience. He is currently a Senior Vice President at Hays Companies, an insurance brokerage and risk management firm with offices in over 30 cities. Prior to joining Hays Companies in 2005, Michael was a commercial litigator at the law firm of Whyte Hirschboeck Dudek.
Co-Owner / President
Carnevor / O & B Consulting / 3rd Street Market Hall
A graduate of Cardinal Stritch University, Omar Shaikh provides Milwaukee residents and visitors with exceptional dining and entertainment experiences as a partner in Carnevor, Wisconsin Ticket Concierge, O & B Consulting, and 3rd Street Market Hall at the Avenue. Omar is also a partner in Tuk Tuk Chicago, a short-distance electric cab service, and the newly revamped Milwaukee Athletic Club.
Omar finds balance with his involvement in several Milwaukee and Wisconsin-based community and tourism organizations including Sharp Literacy, the WI Athletic Hall of Fame, and Donald Driver’s Driven to Achieve Foundation. Omar currently serves as board chairman for VISIT Milwaukee and is a member of the Wisconsin Center District Board of Directors, where he recently assisted with the hiring of a new CEO and the planning of the convention center expansion. Omar is also Chairman for the Milwaukee Kitchen Cabinet, which is a grassroots movement organized by the Wisconsin Restaurant Association to highlight the positive impacts of Milwaukee’s restaurant community. The Milwaukee Kitchen Cabinet created the ‘3 Days of Christmas’ initiative to provide holiday meals and gifts for non-profit groups, and the ‘Sherman Park Revival Celebration’ to support the MPS students of the Sherman Park neighborhood.
Omar and his wife, Connie, have also been involved with the JCC’s KidShare event, Sojourner Truth House fundraisers, the Sharp Literacy’s ‘A Novel Event’ and has helped them all reach record-breaking fundraising goals while serving as the Co-Chair. He is also proud to help his alma mater, Cardinal Stritch University, as Business Advisory Board member. Omar was formerly a board member for Froedtert’s President Advisory Council, NEWaukee, Governor’s Council on Tourism and Milwaukee Urban League, GMC’s MiKE Committee and Downtown Task Force.
7Summits, an IBM Company
Paul is CEO and founder of 7Summits. He founded the company in 2009 to become a category creating company with the sustaining purpose to unleash people’s potential to create, compete and innovate in entirely new ways. Paul saw the opportunity, earlier than most, to join together collaborative and digital interactions. From it's beginnings in Milwaukee to becoming an award leading National Leader with over 230 employees in 30 States across the country, 7Summits was recently acquired by tech giant IBM after aggressive growth even during this Pandemic.
HellermannTyton North America
Terry, President of HellermannTyton North America, a global leader serving the world’s most technical companies with cable management, identification and fiber broadband solutions. With 10 sites and 1400 employees in North America, HellermannTyton serves markets spanning automotive, renewable energies, industrial automation, machine building and construction. Tuttle serves on the Advisory Council of the Federal Reserve of Chicago, is a board member of Girl Scouts of Wisconsin Southeast, and is a speaker focusing on manufacturing and leadership topics.
von Briesen & Roper, s.c.
Bill is the chair of von Briesen’s Business Section. He has over 30 years of experience in corporate and business related transactions including mergers and acquisitions, complex corporate and commercial transactions, corporate governance and business succession planning. Bill is a trusted advisor to his clients and they rely on his ability to achieve desired outcomes in a practical, timely and cost-effective manner.